बुधवार, 8 अगस्त 2012

Homemade wine

Dry wine containing 11 to 12% alcohol can be diluted after fermentation (specific gravity 1.000 or below). It's important that the wine contain no excess sugar. Excess sugar increases the chance of spoilage and formation of a slime-like substance in the vinegar. The wine does not have to be clear as this is accomplished when the vinegar ages. At the last racking, do not add campden tablets or potassium sorbate. Dilute the mead as directed in Method II and follow the directions in Method I.

Preserving vinegar

To preserve vinegar, add 3 campden tablets per gallon of vinegar or Heat the vinegar to 155 degrees F and hold the temperature for 30 minutes. After pasteurizing vinegar add one tablespoon 80-proof vodka to each gallon and age it. If desired to enhance the bouquet, up to one cup oak or beech chips may also be added. Pasteurized or sulphited vinegar can no longer produce more vinegar. Pasteurizing kills vinegar baceria and prevents the formation of "mother" which could lead to spoilage. Pasteurized vinegar keeps indefinitely when tightly capped and stored in a dark place at room temperature. Temperatures above 160 degrees F cause a loss of acidity, flavor and aroma.

Aging vinegar

Vinegar has a strong, sharp bite when first made. It becomes mellow when aged. The esters formed during aging, like those in wine, develop after a period of six months or more when stored at a cool, steady temperature (50 to 60 degrees F is ideal). This undisturbed rest also allows suspended solids to fall, making the vinegar clear and bright. Siphon the clear, aged vinegar off the deposit of solids into sanitized bottles. Introduce as little oxygen as possible. Winemaking suppliers sell attractive vinegar bottles. Use corks or plastic caps to avoid vinegar contact with metal. If corks are used, the necks of the vinegar bottles should be dipped several times into melted wax to form an air-tight seal. The quality of vinegar improves for up to two years and then gradually declines. Fermented vinegar can be sold without the special permits or licenses required for alcoholic beverages. It costs the same as a good bottle of wine.

Types of Vinegars

Wine Vinegar

As with wine , these vinegars can be red or white. The quality is determined by the type of wine used. Fine vinegars come from fine wine , and are made the slow , traditional way in oak barrels. They are matured in wood for periods ranging from a few weeks to one to two years. Red wine vinegars are aged longer than those made from white wine. The very best wine vinegars are made in relatively small batches , have fine balance and subtle , complex flavour. They are characteristically rich and mellow.

Commercially produced wine vinegars are of an inferior quality , using average wine and faster production techniques that remove a lot of the more subtle flavours in the wine. Many commercially produced wines are , none-the-less very good , and as with so many things , the price reflects the quality.

Champagne Vinegar

As to be expected , this vinegar is expensive , delicate , refined and gentle. Pale gold in colour , clear and bright. Wonderful stuff , but you wouldn't want to drink a glass of it on New Years Eve.

Sherry Vinegar

A very fine vinegar type. As with other wine vinegars , the best are very expensive and justifiably so. Sherry vinegars are made from a blend of wines , just like sherry , and are left to mature in the wood for a long time. They develop fat , rich flavour and a mellow complexity. Like traditional Balsamic vinegar , excellent Sherry vinegar occupies a special place outside the vinegar spectrum.

Balsamic Vinegar

Balsamic made the traditional way is an outstanding vinegar. Dark , almost treacly in colour , it is very smooth and mellow with deep complexity and layers of subtle flavours. The very finest Balsamics are made from the the juice of Trebbiano grapes that has been boiled down to almost a syrup. This reduction goes through a first natural fermentation in wooden casks that produces alcohol. A second fermentation , with the aid of the acetobacter bacteria in the air , creates the acetic acid that is vinegar. This vinegar is then filtered into wooden casks and left to mature for anywhere from 10 to 30 years. Some for even longer. Some Balsamics mature in a succession of casks all made from a different type of wood , each type giving a another layer of flavour to the vinegar. It is this almost magical combination of wood , wine and time that makes traditionally made Balsamic vinegar such a rare and very expensive delight.

Historically , Balsamic vinegar originated in Modena; a town in northern Italy. Commercially made Balsamic vinegar is made in the region as well and while nowhere near the quality of the traditionally made vinegar , it is very good and markedly different from other wine vinegars. Though produced on a large scale , most commercial Balsamics are left to mature in wood for varying lengths of time and develop the basic characteristics of the traditionally made vinegar.

Malt Vinegar

Made from a beer-like brew using malted barley , this vinegar is made by much the same method as for commercially produced wine vinegars. Good malt vinegar is left to mature for some time before being bottled.It has a strong flavour and medium acidity. Suitable only as a condiment or for pickling.

Cider Vinegar

Made from cider or apple mash in the same way as malt vinegar. It has a sharp strong flavour at full strength and the better quality ones dilute well to reveal a delicate apple flavour. It has a warm , soft honey colour. Although usually sold filtered there is a growing belief that unfiltered organic cider vinegar is especially beneficial to over-all health. Used as a condiment and for pickling. Very good for pickling fruit. When diluted it can be used for salad dressing.

Rice Vinegar

Usually made from fermented rice or rice wine. Originating in China and Japan. Chinese rice vinegars are stronger than those of Japan and range in colour from colourless ,through various shades of red and several shades of brown. Compared to other types of vinegar Chinese and , especially , Japanese vinegars are very mild ; almost sweet.
Japanese rice vinegar is very mild and mellow and ranges in colour from colourless to pale yellow. There are two distinct types of Japanese vinegar ; one made from fermented rice and the other is made by adding rice vinegar to sake.

White Rice Vinegar

This is a colorless liquid, higher in vinegar content and more similar in flavour to regular vinegar (every time I taste it I immediately envision a plate of salty French fries doused in vinegar). Nonetheless, it is still less acidic and milder in flavour than regular vinegar. There is also a hint of sweetness that comes from the glutinous rice. White rice vinegar can be used in stir-fries, particularly sweet and sour dishes, and for pickling. The best brand is Pearl River Bridge.

Black Rice Vinegar

Black rice vinegar is very popular in southern China, where Chinkiang vinegar, the best of the black rice vinegars, is made. Normally black rice vinegar is made with glutinous or sweet rice, although millet or sorghum may be used instead. Dark in color, it has a deep, almost smoky flavour. One word of warning: the quality of black rice vinegars varies strongly. I recently tried a brand where the caramel and sugar overpowered all the other flavours. Gold Plum's Chinkiang vinegar, made with glutinous rice, water and salt, is generally considered to be the best. Black rice vinegar works well in braised dishes and as a dipping sauce. It can also serve as a substitute for balsamic vinegar.

Red Rice Vinegar

This is another vinegar that is dark colored, but lighter than black rice vinegar. In any event, you'll never get the two mixed up once you have a taste - red rice vinegar is an intriguing combination of tart and sweet. Red rice vinegar can be used as a substitute for black vinegar - just add a bit of sugar. It makes a very good dipping sauce, and you can also use it in noodle, soup and seafood dishes (you'll often find it in recipes for Hot and Sour and Shark's Fin Soup). Both Pearl River Bridge and Koon Chun from Hong Kong are good brands.

Distilled Vinegar

Colourless and very strong , it is too brutal for use in cooking but is ideal for pickling , cleaning glass and as a detergent/disinfectant.

Spirit Vinegar

This vinegar is distilled before the acetification process has finished and contains a small amount of alcohol which changes the flavour dimension. This is the strongest of all the vinegars and is used for the same purposes as distilled vinegar.

Flavoured Vinegar

Flavoured vinegars have been in use in different parts of the world for thousands of years , at least as far back as the Babylonians. Red , white and rice vinegars are the most commonly used , in which any variety or combination of flavouring agents are steeped. Imagination is the only limiting factor when it comes to making flavoured vinegars. The most common are those using herbs and spices, though flowers ,fruit and vegetables are other options.

Herb Vinegars
Herb vinegars are made by adding herbs or spices to cider or wine vinegar and then allowing the flavors to blend. Flavor and other characteristics vary greatly depending on the type of base vinegar and the particular herbs and spices added.

Fruit Vinegar

Fruit vinegar is often made from raspberries, blueberries or blackberries. The resulting products tend to be sweet and delicate in flavor and aroma and make a nice complement to fruits and many salads, or they can be used in salad dressings, such as raspberry vinaigrette.

Umeboshi Vinegar

Umeboshi vinegar is a pink brine with a deep cherry aroma and a fruity, sour flavor. It is a by-product produced when umeboshi (Japanese pickled plums) is made. Technically, it is not classified as a vinegar because it contains salt, but it is a good substitute for vinegar and salt in any recipe. It has a light, citric flavour and lends itself well to salad dressings and adding flavor to steamed vegetables.

Cane Vinegar

This vinegar is made from sugarcane and has a rich, slightly sweet flavour. Vinegar is essential in making pickles, mustards and vinaigrettes. It adds a jolt of flavour to numerous sauces, marinades and dressings, and to preparations such as sauerbraten, sweet and sour dishes and marinated herring. It is most commonly used in Philippine cooking.

Coconut Vinegar

Coconut vinegar is low in acidity, with a musty flavour and a unique aftertaste. It is used in many Thai dishes.

Cabernet Sauvignon Wine VinegarProduced from alcoholic and acetous fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. High quality and rich burgundy in color.Chardonnay Wine VinegarThe result of acetous fermentation of Chardonnay Wine. Distinctive flavors and aroma, light to medium gold in color.Merlot Wine VinegarOne of the best! Unique flavor and aroma, this wine vinegar is the result of Merlot wine natural acetous fermentation. High quality, dark red in color.Pinot Noir Wine VinegarA rare wine product! Clear, bright and medium red in color, this vinegar has unique characteristics in flavors and aroma as the result from Pinot Noir wine acetous fermentation.Zinfandel Wine VinegarClear, bright, transparent product as the result of Zinfandel wine acetous fermentation.
Corn Sugar VinegarA result of the alcoholic and subsequent acetous fermentation of corn sugar with smooth, mild flavor. Distinctive amber color.
Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is prepared by pulverizing apples into a slurry of juice and pulp then adding yeast and sugars.
Reports of the healing properties of apple cider vinegar date to 3300 BC. In 400 BC, Hippocrates supposedly used apple cider vinegar as a healing elixir, an antibiotic, and for general health. Samurai warriors purportedly used a vinegar tonic for strength and power. U.S. Civil War soldiers used a vinegar solution to prevent gastric upset and as a treatment for pneumonia and scurvy.
Apple cider vinegar has been used alone and in combination with other agents for many health conditions. Anecdotally, ancient Egyptians used apple cider vinegar for weight loss. During the diet "craze" of the 1970s, proponents suggested that a combination of apple cider, kelp, vitamin B6, and lecithin could "trick" the body's metabolism into burning fat faster. Claims of preventing viral and bacterial infections, as well as allergic reactions to pollen, dander and dust stem from the proposed ability of apple cider vinegar to prevent alkalinization of the body. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to form a clear conclusion about the efficacy or safety of apple cider vinegar for any health condition.
There may be long-term risks associated with the acidity of apple cider vinegar, including low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia) or diminished bone mineral density (1).
Apple cider vinegar has also been used alone or with honey with the objective to slow the process of aging, and as an antiseptic for the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract.
Oral apple cider vinegar combined with cayenne, ginger, bromelain, and citrin, has been promoted to maintain healthy cholesterol levels and reduce weight. In combination with gotu kola, apple cider vinegar has been taken by mouth for curbing appetite, detoxifying the body, weight loss, boosting the immune system, treating arthritis, lowering cholesterol, improving circulation, supplying amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, and aiding in the effective metabolism of food. Scientific evidence supporting these uses is lacking.
Apple cider vinegar has been used as a flavoring agent and as a household sanitizer.
No Evidence
Acne (topical), amino acid source, anti-aging (alone or with honey), antiseptic for gastrointestinal tract, appetite suppression, arthritis, asthma, bladder cleanser, bowel stone prevention in horses, circulation improvement, colitis, dandruff prevention (topical), decongestant, dental conditions, detoxification, diarrhea, digestion aid, dizziness, ear discharge, eczema, fatigue, flavoring agent, food poisoning, hair loss (topical), hair rinse, hay fever, headache, hearing impairment, heartburn, hemorrhage, hiccoughs, high blood pressure, household sanitizer, high cholesterol, immune enhancement, infections, insect bites (topical), insomnia, itchy scalp (topical), kidney cleanser, leg cramps, menstruation regulation, mental alertness, mineral source, nail problems, nervousness, nose bleeds, obesity, osteoporosis, queasy stomach, scurvy prevention, shingles (topical), sinus congestion, skin toner (topical), sore eyes, sore throat, strength enhancement, stuffy nose, sunburn (topical), tired eyes, vaginitis (added to baths), varicose veins, viral hepatitis, vitamin source, weight loss.
Apple cider vinegar for food may be standardized based on acidity content, usually 4-8% acidity.
Adults (over 18 years old)
Note: No specific doses are supported by well-designed clinical trials.
Oral (by mouth)
Colds: 2 tbsp cider vinegar has been taken in 1 cup water 3 times daily.
Digestive aid: 285mg tablets have been taken with meals.
Hypertension: 2 tsp of apple cider vinegar mixed in water, has been taken in the morning.
Weight loss: 1 oz. apple cider vinegar and 1 tsp of honey in 1-4 oz. of warm water has been taken before each meal.
Topical (on the skin)
Vaginitis: 3 cups of apple cider vinegar has been added to a hot bath.
Viral hepatitis: A retention enema containing chlorophyll, water, and apple cider vinegar has been used. Safety and efficacy are unclear.
Children (under 18 years old)
Not enough available evidence.
Caution should be exercised in patients with known allergy/hypersensitivity to apple cider vinegar or any of its ingredients, including apples and pectin.
Side Effects and Warnings
There is little scientific study of the safety of apple cider vinegar. The acidity of undiluted apple cider vinegar may destroy tooth enamel when sipped orally. Use cautiously in patients with low potassium levels or taking potassium-lowering medications. Use cautiously in patients with diabetes. Apple cider vinegar may contain sugars, may lower blood potassium levels (based on one case report), and can contain chromium which may affect insulin levels (2). Use cautiously in patients with osteoporosis, based on one case report (1). Avoid sipping or drinking undiluted apple cider vinegar: The acidity of apple cider vinegar may destroy tooth enamel when sipped orally.
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Not recommended due to lack of sufficient data. Likely safe when taken orally as food flavoring. Possibly unsafe when used in larger amounts.
Interactions with Drugs
Note: Theoretical interactions are based on potential pH altering effects of apple cider vinegar. The degree to which apple cider vinegar affects blood pH is currently not established.
Theoretically, long-term oral use of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels, increasing the risk of toxicity of cardiac glycoside drugs such as digoxin (LanoxinxAE), adding to the potassium-lowering effects of insulin, laxatives and diuretics such as furosemide (LasixxAE) (1).
Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements
Note: Theoretical interactions are based on potential pH altering effects of apple cider vinegar. The degree to which apple cider vinegar affects blood pH is currently not established.
Theoretically, long-term oral use of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels, increasing the risk of toxicity of cardiac glycoside herbs such as adonis (Adonis vernalis), Adonis microcarpa, balloon cotton (Asclepias friticosa), black hellebore root/melampode (Helleborus niger), black Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum), bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera), cactus grandifloris (Selenicerus grandiflorus), convallaria (Convallaria majalis), eyebright (Euphrasia spp.), figwort (Scrophulariaceae), foxglove/digitalis (Digitalis purpurea), frangipani (Plumeria rubra), hedge mustard (Sisymbruim officinale), Helleborus viridus, hemp root/Canadian hemp root, king's crown (Calotropis procera), lily-of-the-valley, motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), oleander leaf (Nerium oleander L.), pheasant's eye plant (Adonis aestivalis), plantain leaf (Plantago lanceolata), pleurisy root, psyllium husks (Plantago psyllium), redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias currassavica), rhubarb root (Rheum palmatum), rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia), sea-mango (Cerebra manghas), senna fruit (Cassia senna), squill (Urginea maritima), strophanthus (Strophanthus hispidus, Strophanthus kombe), uzara (Xysmalobium undulatum), wallflower (Cheirantus cheiri), white horehound (Marrubium vulgare), wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis), yellow dock root (Rumex crispus), or yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) (1).
Theoretically, long-term oral use of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels, and may add to the potassium-lowering effects of diuretics such as artichoke (Cynara scolymus), celery (Apium graveolens), corn silk (Zea mays), couchgrass (Agropyron repens), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), elder flower (Sambucus nigra/Sambucus canadensis), horsetail (Equisetum arvense), juniper berry (Juniperus communis) kava (Piper methysticum), shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), uva ursi leaf (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), or yarrow flower (Achillea millefolium) (1).
Theoretically, long-term overuse of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels, and may add to the potassium-lowering effects of laxative herbs such as alder buckthorn, aloe dried leaf sap (Aloe spp), black root, blue flag rhizome, butternut bark, dong quai, European buckthorn, eyebright (Euphrasia spp), cascara bark (Rhamnus persiana), castor oil, chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus), colocynth fruit pulp, dandelion, gamboges bark exudates, horsetail (Equisetum arvense), jalap root, manna bark exudates, plantain leaf (Plantago lanceolata), podophyllum root, psyllium husks (Plantago psyllium), rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) root, senna (Cassia senna) fruit, wild cucumber fruit, or yellow dock (Rumex crispus) root (1).
Interactions with Foods
Published reports of interactions with food are not available.
Interactions with Lab Tests
Note: Theoretical interactions are based on potential pH altering effects of apple cider vinegar. The degree to which apple cider vinegar affects blood pH is currently not established.
Theoretically, long-term use or high doses of apple cider vinegar may reduce serum potassium levels and increase urine potassium levels (1).
In one case report, long-term use of 250mL apple cider vinegar per day was associated with a high positive urinary anion gap (1).
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature, and was peer-reviewed and edited by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com): Christine Park, PharmD (Northeastern University); Tracee Rae Abrams, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Ethan Basch, MD (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center); Heather Boon B.Sc.Phm, PhD (University of Toronto); Nicole Giese, MS (Natural Standard Research Collaboration); Mary Giles, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa, CDN, RH (AHG) (Bastyr University); Catherine DeFranco Kirkwood, MPH, CCCJS-MAC (MD Anderson Cancer Center); Adrianne Rogers, MD (Boston University); Erica Rusie, PharmD (Nova Southeastern University); Joshua Sklar, PharmD (University of Rhode Island); Catherine Ulbricht, PharmD (Massachusetts General Hospital); Jennifer Woods (Northeastern University).

1 टिप्पणी:

BarryV ने कहा…

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