बुधवार, 25 अगस्त 2010

Storing Your Vinegar

The vinegar is now ready for storage in separate, capped containers. Stored vinegar will stay in excellent condition almost indefinitely if it is pasteurized. To pasteurize, heat the vinegar before pouring it into sterilized bottles, or bottle, then place in a hot water bath. In both cases, the temperature of the vinegar must reach at least 140 degrees F to sterilize the product, and should not exceed 160 degrees F. Use a cooking thermometer to ensure the correct temperature is met. Cool the containers and store at room temperature out of direct sunlight.
General Directions of Making Vinegar

These directions show how to make vinegar at home using readily available ingredients and supplies.

In the late 1800s chemists learned to make acetic acid. Manufacturers added water to reduce its strength to 5%, colored it and sold it as vinegar. Imitation vinegar is still manufactured and by law the label must state that it is diluted acetic acid. Diluted acetic acid is inexpensive and lacks the vitamins, minerals and esters found in fermented vinegar; its flavour and aroma are also inferior.

It takes good alcohol (wine or beer) to make fermented vinegar. The hit-or-miss method of making vinegar by allowing sugar and water to ferment is not wise. The fermentation of sugar to alcohol by wild yeast is followed by a conversion of the alcohol to acetic acid by wild bacteria. Chances of failure or undesirable tastes and aromas are high. Control the process by using great care in cleanliness and introducing chosen yeast and bacteria to obtain quality vinegar every time.

General Directions

Winemaking suppliers list acetobacter as "mother" or vinegar culture. These cultures convert alcohol to acetic acid (vinegar). Most suppliers sell red and white wine vinegar cultures. Some sell cider, malt and mead cultures as well. Any culture may be combined with any type alcohol to produce vinegar.

Vinegar should contain at least 5% acid as required for preserving or pickling. Specialty vinegar contains acid as high as 7%. Beer containing 5.5% alcohol will yield about 5% acid. Wine containing 11 to 12% alcohol must be diluted to 5.5 to 7% alcohol before using it to make vinegar.

Acid test kits, sold by winemaking suppliers, are used to determine the acidity of vinegar. Acid tests are easy to perform and instructions come with the kit.


Sanitize utensils and containers that will touch the vinegar by soaking them for 20 minutes in a solution of 2 tablespoons chlorine laundry bleach to 1 gallon water. Rinse everything well with hop tap water. Hot tap water is relatively sterile after being held at high temperatures for several hours in the hot water heating tank.

Vinegar Method I
3 measures beer, ale or vinegar stock (5.5 to 7% alcohol)
1 measure vinegar culture with active bacteria


Vinegar leaches molecules from iron and aluminum. Use sanitized glass, enamel, stainless steel or stoneware containers less than two-thirds full. Cover the container with a cloth or stopper it with cotton to keep insects out, while allowing air to freely reach the stock. Store the mixture in a dark place.


Temperatures between 80 and 85 degrees are ideal. Low or fluctuating temperatures slow the process. At 75 to 85 degrees F, it will take 6 to 8 weeks for conversion. At 85 to 90 degrees F, it can take 4 to 6 weeks for conversion. Temperatures over 95 degrees F slow conversion; above 140 degrees F, the bacteria die.

An acetic film called "mother" will form. This smooth, leathery, grayish film becomes quite thick and heavy. It should not be disturbed. It often becomes heavy enough to fall and is succeeded by another formation. If the mother falls, remove and discard it. An acid test will indicate when all of the alcohol is converted to vinegar. Part of the vinegar may be withdrawn and pasteurized. The remaining unpasteurized vinegar may be used as a culture to start another batch. Living bacteria are in the liquid. A piece of the mother is not necessary to start a new batch.

Add beer or diluted wine to the culture every 4 to 8 weeks, depending on the temperature maintained and when most of the alcohol is converted to vinegar. Adding more alcohol to the culture keeps it alive, prevents spoilage and increases the quality of vinegar. If unpasteurized vinegar is exposed to oxygen without alcohol present, bacteria can convert the vinegar to carbon dioxide and water.

Vinegar Method II

2 measures dry wine (11 to 12% alcohol)
1 measure water (boiled 15 minutes and allowed to cool)
1 measure vinegar culture with active bacteria
Follow the directions in Method I. Purchased wine can be used, but somecommercial wines contain sulfites or preservatives that could kill thevinegar bacteria.

Vinegar Method III

(For winemakers only)
Wine containing less than 10% alcohol is subject to spoilage. This formula to make 7% alcohol is an ideal vinegar stock. Follow good winemaking procedures.

When the fermentation is complete (specific gravity 1.000 or below) this low-alcohol wine can be converted to vinegar as directed in Method I.

1 1/2 pounds weight honey (or any sugar source to obtain a specific gravity of 1.050)
2 teaspoons yeast nutrient or energizer
4 teaspoons acid blend (7.5 ppt tartaric acid with an acid test kit)
1/4 teaspoon tannin
wine yeast
add water to equal 1 gallon

कोई टिप्पणी नहीं: